Main Ideas

  1. Catal Huyuk is probably most significant because it shares in many of the qualities of Gobekli Tepe and Jericho however, it is a farming or agrarian based community.  It also does not have a religious center or temple.  
  2. Some of the ideas about Catal Huyuk have gone through significant change since 2015.
  3. Significant also because of Ian Hodder's ideas concerning social structure in neolithic society.
  4. Similar iconography to many of the other earlier sites.
  5. Human skulls are found at this site and later ones and often the skulls are "decorated" and or used and preserved.
  6. Wall paintings!

Resources were mainly mud reeds 
and agriculture/livestock.
Major Sites/Cultures of the Ancient Near East and Fertile Crescent
  • c. 8000-5500 BCE Early Neolithic
    • Walls and Towers of Jericho (in present-day Palestine). c. 8000-7000 BCE
    • Catal Huyuk (Chatal Huyuk) in present day Turkey 7,000-5,700 BCE
  • c. 3600-2100 Sumerian 
    • Uruk and Sumer (Present Day Warka, Iraq)  Established 5000BCE Most Active c. 3600-2100
    • c. 3300-2300 BCE  Sumerian- Votive Figures from Eshunna (Present Day Tell Asmar)
  • c. 2200 Babylon-Babylon
    • Hammurabi ruled (1792-1750 BCE)
  • c. 2300-2184 Akkadian- Stele of Naramsin

James Mellart Excavations 1960's

Ian Hodder Excavations 1993-2015

Questions for Discussion
  1. What are some of the subjects and ideas expressed or illustrated in the art of Catal Huyuk?
  2. Are the subjects similar to the art found in Europe during the Paleolithic period?  If they are similar why is this?
  3. Why is it important that human skulls are found at this site?